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英语从句翻译技巧和方法

2015-07-15 15:34:24   来源:网络    点击:


         

          英语多从句,汉语多分句:  就句子类型而言,英语句子不仅可以在简单句中使用很长的修饰语使句子变长,同时也可以用从句使句子变复杂,而这些从句往往通过从句引导词与主句或其它从句连接,整个句子尽管表面上看错综复杂却是一个整体。汉语本来就喜欢用短句,加上表达结构相对松散,因此,英译汉时需要将各种英语从句进行处理,可以译成一个汉语单句,也可译成多个汉语分句。并按照汉语的表达习惯对英语复合句的关联部分(从句引导词)加以逻辑梳理,既分而叙之,又上关下联,承接转换,犹如整容。 一 名词性从句的译法  名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。下面我们便逐一论述这些名词性从句的翻译方法。
        1. 主语从句  1) 由what, whatever, whoever等代词引导的主语从句汉译时一般可按原文顺序翻译。 例如:  What he said is true.  译文:他说的一切都是真的。  Whoever violates the disciplines should be criticized. 译文:谁违犯了纪律,谁就应该受到批评。  2) 由it作形式主语引导的主语从句,翻译时视情况可以提前,也可以不提前。 例如:  It doesn't make much difference whether you come yourself or send a substitute.  译文:你是自己来还是派代理人来,都无关紧要。(提前)  It seemed inconceivable that the pilot could have survived the crash. 译文:驾驶员在飞机坠毁之后竟然还活着,这看来是不可想象的。(提前) It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings. 译文:这奇怪,她竟然没有看出自己的缺点。(不提前)  It is reported that our country has sent another spaceship. 译文:据报道,我们国家又发射了一艘宇宙飞船。(不提前) 反之,汉语分句可以译成英语主语从句,例如: 真奇怪(可惜),竟无人喜欢这本书。  译文:It's strange (a pity) that no one should like this book. 据说,他爱世间的所有生命,就如同一个父亲爱他自己的孩子那样。  译文:It is said that he loves all beings just like a father loves his young children.

       2. 宾语从句  1) 由that, what, how等引起的宾语从句汉译时一般不需要提前,可按原文顺序翻译。 例如:  He would remind people again and again that it was decided not only by 
himself but by lots of others.  译文:他再三提醒大家说,决定这件事的不只是他一个人,还有其他许多人。 I understand that he is well qualified, but I feel that he needs more experience.  译文:我知道他完全够条件,但我觉得他需要更多的经验。  2) 用it作假宾语的句子,汉译时that引起的宾语从句视情况可以提前,也可以不提前,“it”不译。  I take it for granted that we should work hard.  译文:我理所当然地认为,我们应该努力工作。(也可译为:我认为我们应该努力工作,这是理所当然的。)  I consider it a great honor that I am chosen to attend the meeting. 译文:我被指定参加会议,感到十分荣幸。 反之,汉语分句可以译成英语宾语从句,例如: 史密斯回答说,他感到很遗憾。  译文:Smith replied that he was sorry.  我向他们讲清楚了,他们必须在上午十点前交卷。  译文:I made it clear to them that they must hand in their papers before 10 o’clock in the morning.

       3. 表语从句  表语从句和宾语从句一样,一般可按原文顺序翻译。 例如:  That was how a small nation won the victory over a big power. 译文:就这样,小国战胜了大国。 His view of the press was that the reporters were either for him or against him.  译文:他对新闻界看法是,记者们不是支持他,就是反对他。 反之,汉语分句可以译成英语表语从句,例如: 他再三强调,他们绝不应该后退寸步。  译文:What he emphasized over and over again was that they should never retreat even for an inch.  然而,现实情况仍旧是,虽然她貌似一个军事强国,她的空防却远不是无懈可击的。  译文:The fact, however, remains that, though seemingly a big military power, she is far from invulnerable in her air defense.
        4. 同位语从句  同位语是用来对名词或代词作进一步解释的。同位语可以是单词、短语或从句。以下便是同位语从句的译法。 1) 按原文顺序翻译。  He expressed the hope that he would come over to visit China again. 译文:他表示希望再到中国访问。  There were also indications that intelligence, not politics was Helm’s primary concern.  译文:而且也有种种迹象表明,赫尔姆斯主要关心的是情报,而不是政治。 2) 同位语从句提前。It does not alter the fact that he is the man responsible for the delay. 译文:迟延应由他负责,这个事实是改变不了的。  They were very suspicious of the assumption that he would rather kill himself than surrender.  译文:对于他宁愿自杀也不投降这种假设,他们是很怀疑的。 3) 增加“即”或“以为”,或用冒号、破折号分开。  Influenced by these ethics, Powers lived under the delusion that money does not stink.  译文:受了这种道德观念的熏陶,鲍尔斯生活在一种错觉中,以为金钱总是香喷喷的。  But it ignores the fact that, though pilots, we potentially were in as much danger of capture as any covert agent.  译文:但却忽略了这一点,即我们虽说是飞行员,却和任何潜伏的特务一样有被 俘的危险。  But considered realistically, we had to face the fact that our prospects were less than good.  译文:但是现实地考虑一下,我们不得不正视这样的事实:我们的前景并不妙。 And there was the possibility that a small electrical spark might accidentally bypass the most carefully planned circuit. 译文:而且总有这种可能性—一个小小的电火花,可能会意外地绕过了最为精心设计的线路。  反之,汉语分句可以译成英语同位语从句,例如;  作为一个孝顺的儿子,我接受了父亲的决定,要当一名医生。  译文:As an obedient son, I accepted my father’s decision that I was to be a doctor.  不久以前,科学家们有了一个令人振奋的发现,即可以把这种废物变为塑料。 译文:Not long ago the scientists made an exciting discovery that this “waste” matter could be turned into plastics. 二 定语从句的译法  英语的定语从句呈右开放状,可以向右无限扩展;而汉语没有定语从句之说,作为修饰成分的定语习惯上放在被修饰词之前(左边),呈左封闭状,不能像英语那样随意扩展。因此我们在翻译复杂的英语定语长句时,最有效的方法就是将其切分为一个个短句再分别处理。 1. 限制性定语从句的翻译方法  限制性定语从句对所修饰的先行词起限制作用,与先行词关系密切,不用逗号分开。翻译这类句子时往往可以采用以下三种方法。 1) 前置法。  把英语限制性定语从句译成带“的”的定语词组,放在被修饰词之前,从而将复合句译成汉语单句。  I am a girl who likes dancing. 译文:我就是一个爱好舞蹈的女孩。  Pollution is a pressing problem which we must deal with. 译文:污染是我们必须解决的一个紧迫问题。  There will come a day when people the world over will live a happy lifeunder the sun of socialism.  译文:全世界人民在社会主义阳光下过幸福生活的一天是会到来的。 2) 后置法。  译成前置定语的方法大都适用于限制性定语从句,但一般用于译比较简单的的英语定语从句;如果从句结构复杂,译成汉语前置定语显得太长而不符合汉语表达习惯时,往往可以译成后置的并列分句。 A 译成并列分句,重复英语先行词。 They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives. 译文:为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍爱的,在过去,许多中国人为了这个理想而牺牲了自己的生命。  Newton invented a paper lantern illuminated by a candle which he carried with him to light his way to school on dark winter mornings. 译文:牛顿发明了一盏点蜡烛的纸灯笼,在昏暗朦胧的冬天早晨上学时带着灯笼照路。  B 译成并列分句,省略英语先行词。  He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weighed up to two pounds each.  译文:他种出了200个大得惊人的西红柿,每个重达两磅。  They worked out a new method by which production has now been rapidly increased.  译文:他们制定出一种新方法,采用之后生产迅速得到提高。 3) 熔合法。  A 熔合法是指把原句中的主语和定语从句熔合在一起译成一个独立句子的一种翻译方法。由于限制性定语从句与主句关系紧密,所以熔合法比较适用于翻译限制性定语从句。英语中的There be„结构汉译时往往就是这样处理的。 There are many people who want to see the film. 译文:许多人要看这部电影。  There were men in that crowd who had stood there every day for a month. 译文:在那群人中,有些人每天站在那里,站了一个月。 There is a man downstairs who wants to see you. 译文:楼下有人要见你。 B 此外,还有些带有定语从句的英语复合句,译成汉语时可将英语主句压缩成汉语词组作语,而把定语从句译成谓语,熔合成一个句子。  “We are a nation that must beg to stay alive,” said a foreign economist. 译文:一位外国经济学家说道:“我们这个国家不讨饭就活不下去。”  We used a plane of which almost every part carried some indication of national identity.  译文:我们驾驶的飞机几乎每一个部件都有国籍的某些标志。 反之,汉语句子也可译成英语限制性定语从句,例如: 他三岁就死了父亲,所以记不起他的父亲了。  译文:He did not remember his father who died when he was three years old. 我有一个问题弄不懂,想请教你,你能回答吗?  译文:Can you answer a question which I want to ask and is puzzling me? 
         偶尔也有这样的日子,我的沮丧之情会暂时消散。  译文:Occasionally there would be the days when my depression would dissipate temporarily.  
      2. 非限制性定语从句的翻译方法  英语非限制性定语从句对先行词不起限制作用,只对它加以描写、叙述或解释。翻译这类从句时可以采用以下几种方法。
      1) 前置法。  一些较短而具有描写性的英语非限制性定语从句,也可译成带“的”的前置定语,放在被修饰词前面。但这种处理方法不如用在英语限制性定语从句那样普遍。 He liked his sister, who was warm and pleasant, but he did not like his brother, who was aloof and arrogant.  译文:他喜欢热情愉快的妹妹,但不喜欢冷漠高傲的哥哥。  But Miggle’s laugh, which was very infectious, broke the silence. 译文:但密格尔的富有感染力的笑声打破了平静。
     2) 后置法。 A 译成并列分句  a 从句后置,重复英语关系代词所代表的含义。  I told the story to John, who told it to his brother. 译文:我把这件事告诉了约翰,约翰又告诉了他的弟弟。  This is a college of science and technology, the student of which are trained to be engineers or scientists.  译文:这是一所科技大学,该校学生将被培养成工程师或科学工作者。
   b 从句后置,省略英语关系代词所代表的含义。  This type of meter is called a multimeter, which is used to measure electricity.  译文:这种仪表称为万用表,用来测量电流。  After dinner, the four key negotiators resumed their talks, which continued well into the night.  译文:饭后,四个主要谈判人物继续进行会谈,一直谈到深夜。 c 从句前置,重复英语关系代词所代表的含义。  The men had suddenly awakened to the fact that there were beauty and significance in these trifles, which they had so long trodden carelessly beneath their feet. 译文:这些花以前一直被这些人漫不经心地踩在脚下,现在他们突然意识到这些小玩意儿的美丽和意义了。  It was an old woman, tall and shapely still, though withered by time, on whom his eyes fell when he stopped and turned.  译文:他站住,转过身来,定睛一看,是个年迈的妇女,她身材很高,仍然一副好模样,虽然受了时间的折磨而有些憔悴。 B 译成独立句  Nevertheless the problem was solved successfully, which showed that the computations were accurate.  译文:不过,问题还是圆满地解决了。这说明计算很准确。  He had talked to Vice-President Nixon, who assured him that everything
hat could be done would be done.  译文:他和副总统尼克松谈过话。副总统向他担保,凡是能够做到的都将竭尽全力去做。  反之,汉语句子也可译成英语非限制性定语从句,例如: 他把这种想法向海军上将汇报,海军上将对这想法很感兴趣,命令进行秘密研究,看看是否可行。  译文:He took the idea to Admiral, who liked it and ordered a secret study made to see if it could be done.  我遇到了一个问题。当我就要出席会议时,这个问题越发明显了。 译文:I had a problem, which became clearly obvious just as I was to appear at the meeting.  3. 兼有状语职能的定语从句的翻译方法  英语中有些定语从句,兼有状语从句的职能,在意义上与主句有状语关系,说明原因、结果、目的、让步、假设等关系。翻译时应善于从原文的字里行间发现这些逻辑上的关系,然后译成汉语各种相应的偏正复句。 1) 译成表示原因的分句。  The ambassador was giving a dinner for a few people whom he wished especially to talk to or to hear from.  译文:大使只宴请了几个人,因为他特别想和这些人谈谈,听听他们的意见。 You must grasp the concept of “work”, which is very important in physics. 译文:你必须掌握“功”的概念,因为它在物理学中很重要。 2) 译成表示结果的分句。  Copper, which is used so widely for carrying electricity, offers very little resistance.  译文:铜的电阻很小,所以广泛地用来传输电力。  There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.  译文:这个方案富于创造性,独出心裁,很有魄力,所以他们都很喜欢 3) 译成表示让步的分句。  He insisted on building another house, which he had no use for. 译文:他坚持要再造一栋房子,尽管他并无此需要。  Electronic computers, which have many advantages, cannot carry out creative work and replace them.  译文:尽管电子计算机有很多优点,但是它们不能进行创造性工作,也不能代替人。  4) 译成表示目的的分句。  We have to oil the moving parts of the machine, the friction of which may thus be greatly reduced.  译文:我们必须给机器的运动部件加润滑油,以使摩擦大大减少。  I will try to get an illustrated dictionary dealing with technical terms, which will enable me to translate scientific literature more exactly. 译文:我要设法弄一本有插图的技术名词词典,以便把科学文献译得更准确。 5) 译成表示条件、假设的分句。 Men became desperate for work, any work, which will help them to keep alive
their families.  译文:人们拼命想得到工作,不管什么工作,只要能维持一家人的生活就行。 For any machine whose input and output forces are known, its mechanical advantage can be calculated.  译文:对于任何机器来说,如果知其输入力和输出力,就能求出其机械效率。 反之,汉语句子也可译成兼有状语职能的英语定语从句,例如: 如果赞成,就请举手。  译文:Those who are in favor please hold up your hands. 他想写一篇文章,以便能引起公众对这件事的注意。  译文:He wishes to write an article that will attract public attention to the matter.  如果以为理性认识可以不从感性认识得来,他就是一个唯心论者。  译文:Anyone who thinks that rational knowledge need not be derived from perceptual knowledge is an idealist. 三 状语从句的翻译方法  英语状语从句包括表示时间、原因、条件、让步、目的等各种从句。以下是各类英语状语从句的翻译方法。  1. 表时间的英语状语从句的翻译方法。 1) 译成相应的表示时间的状语。  While she spoke, the tears were running down. 译文:她说话时,泪水直流。  Please turn off the light when you leave the room. 译文:离开房间时请关灯。  2) 译成“刚(一)„„就„„”的句式。  Hardly had we arrived when it began to rain. 译文:我们一到就下雨了。  He had scarcely handed me the letter when he asked me to read it. 译文:他一把信交给我就叫我念给他听。 3) 译成并列分句。 He shouted as he ran. 译文:他一边跑,一边喊。  They set him free when his ransom had not yet been paid. 译文:他还没有交赎金,他们就把他释放了。  反之,汉语句子也可译成表时间的英语状语从句,例如: 她一走近,讲话声就停下来了。  译文:The voices stopped as she drew near. 她一边唱着歌,一边为麦特准备晚饭。  译文:She sang as she prepared Matt’s supper. 2. 表原因的英语状语从句的翻译方法 1) 译成表“因”的分句。  The crops failed because the season was dry. 译文:因为气候干旱,作物歉收。  The strike leaders were alarmed when I told them what had happened as the reporter was unfriendly.
译文:当我把发生的事情讲给罢工领导人听时,他们吓了一跳,因为这记者是不友好的。  2) 译成因果偏正复句中的主句。  Because he was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he stuck to his opinion.  译文:他深信这件事正确可靠,因此坚持己见。  Pure iron is not used in industry because it is too soft. 译文:纯铁很软,所以不用于工业。  3) 译成不用关联词而因果关系内含的并列分句。  “You took me because I was useful. There is no question of gratitude between us,” said Rebecca.  译文:“我有用,你才收留我。咱们之间谈不到感恩不感恩,”丽贝卡说。 After all, it did not matter much, because in 24 hours, they were going to be free.  译文:反正关系不大,二十四小时以后他们就要自由了。 反之,汉语句子也可译成表原因的英语状语从句,例如: 因为很多人没有来,会议只好延期。  译文:We had to put the meeting off since so many people were absent. 我非常疲倦,要去睡了。  译文:I am going to bed as I’m very tired. 3. 表条件的英语状语从句的翻译方法 1) 译成表“条件”或“假设”的分句。  It was better in case they were captured. 译文:要是能把他们捉到,那就更好了。  If something has the ability to adjust itself to the environment, we say it has intelligence.  译文:如果某物具有适应环境的能力,我们就说它具有智力。 Granted that this is true, what conclusion can you draw? 译文:假设这是实际情况,你又能得出什么结论呢? 2) 译成补充说明情况的分句。  You can drive tonight if you like. 译文:你今晚可以开车,如果你愿意的话。  Any body above the earth will fall unless it is supported by an upward force equal to its weight. 译文:地球上的任何物体都会落下来,除非它受到一个大小与其重量相等的力的支持。  反之,汉语句子也可译成表条件的英语状语从句,例如: 万一我忘了,请提醒我一下。  译文:In case I forget, please remind me (about it). 如果你们能保持整洁的话,我们可以让你们用这个房间。  译文:We’ll let you use the room on condition that you will keep it clean and tidy.  4. 表让步的英语状语从句的翻译方法  I still think that you made a mistake while I admit what you say.
译文:就算你说得对,我仍认为你做错了。  While this is true of some, it is not true of all. 译文:虽然有一部分是真的,但不见得全部都如此。  He got the same result whichever way he did the experiment. 译文:不管用什么方法做实验,他所得到的结果都相同。 They were determined to carry out their plan no matter what obstacles they would have to face.  译文:他们决心坚决执行计划,不论他们将面临什么样的障碍。 反之,汉语句子也可译成表让步的英语状语从句,例如: 不管怎么样,我永远也不会屈服。  译文:I will never give in, no matter what happens. 显然他们这样做是对的,不管谁怎么说,她也要为他们辩护。 译文:They were obviously doing the right thing, and she would defend them, whatever anyone said.  5. 表目的的英语状语从句的翻译方法  He pushed open the door gently and stole out of the room for fear that he should awake her.  译文:为了不惊醒她,他轻轻推开房门,悄悄地溜了出去。  We should start early so that we might get there before noon. 译文:为了正午前赶到那里,我们很早就动身了。  The murderer ran away as fast as he could, so that he might not be caught red-handed.  译文:凶手尽快地跑开,以免被人当场抓住。  A rocket must attain a speed of about five miles per second so that it may put a satellite in orbit.  译文:火箭必须获得每秒大约5英里的速度,以便把卫星送入轨道。 反之,汉语句子也可译成表目的的英语状语从句,例如: 他把门砰的一声关上,好让他母亲知道他回来了。  译文:He slammed the door so that his mother would know he was home. 我们读历史不单纯是为了娱乐,而是为了可以从中发现政治发展和政治演变的规律。  译文:We do not read history simply for pleasure, but in order that we may discover the laws of political growth and change.  练习:  一 英译汉:  1. Perhaps light is some sort of electric wave, whose nature we do not yet understand.  2. They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives. 3. We may define chemistry as the science in which we deal with the chemical change in matter as a result of which it is possible to form a new substance. 4. Time goes fast for one who has a sense of beauty,when there are pretty children in a pool and a young Diana on the edge,to receive with wonder 
anything you can catch!  5. Anyone who thinks that rational knowledge need not be derived from perceptual knowledge is an idealist.  6. In office, figures, lists and information are compiled which tell the managers or heads of the business what is happening in their shops or factories.  7. It was not until sixty years ago that a method of extracting aluminum ore was found which could lead to a cheap large-scale process.  8. The first two must be equal for all who are being compared, if any comparison in terms of intelligence is to be made.  9. Behaviourists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development. 10. In fact a basic amount of movement occurs during sleep which is specifically concerned with preventing muscle inactivity.  11. They jumped to the conclusion that all our flights out of China had been made from Beijing  12. The action it takes at any moment can’t be predicted, and people find that disturbing. 13. Liquids, which contain no free electrons, are poor conductors of heat. 14. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint.  15. On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed. 二 汉译英:  1. 有种种迹象表明敌军已经撤退。  2. 他关心的是他从该项目中能获得多少利润。 3. 失败是成功之母的信念使他继续进行实验。  4. 对禁食猪肉的一种解释是:如果未被煮透的话,猪肉可能会传播一种叫旋毛虫病的疾病。  5. 很明显,尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质,过分的自我意识却是有害的。 6. 我们已经失去了最亲爱的朋友,这个事实无人能够改变。 7. 老太太很伤心失望,将支票撕得粉碎。 8. 在伦敦时,她就已经听说过这种疾病。  9. 因为他们认为自己不值得称赞,他们就又发现很难因别人的赞美而高兴。 10. 为了能及时到办公室,他很早就出发了。 小结:  英语是分析型的理性语言,句间讲究形合,其关联照应手段是显性的、多样的,显之形连;而汉语是综合型的直感语言,多数情况下疏于语法,句间讲究意合,其关联照应手段是隐性的,工于意传。英语句子的从属关系大多是用连接词if,because,although,while等明确表达出来。因为,连接词起过渡作用,承上
启下,使表达合乎逻辑,同时结构严谨,文章紧凑。中国学生在汉译英时受母语习惯的影响,往往不注意句间衔接,给人跳跃和不流畅感。例如:  People learn English to use it. Some learn it to study or work abroad. Others learn it to read books and magazines in English or have something to do with English-speaking foreigners. 若采用适当连接词,则改进为:  People learn English for practical purposes: some learn it to study or work abroad, while others learn it to read or communicate in English. 文章读起来就通顺地道了。
      本文是由北京环球语翼文化传播有限公司编辑整理发布。
 
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