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英汉翻译之不同定语从句的译法

2015-08-17 14:18:41   来源:    点击:



      限制性定语从句

  a.  前置法

  译成带“的”的定语词组,放在被修饰词之前,变为单句:

  The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.

  在他手下工作的人对他怕得要死。

  b. 后置法

 

 

  如果从句结构复杂,译成汉语前置定语显得太长而不符合汉语表达习惯时,往往译成后置的并列分句。

  1) 译成并列分句,重复英语先行词:

  They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives.

  他们正在为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍爱的,在过去,许多中国人曾为了这个理想而牺牲了自己的生命。

  2)译成并列句,省略英语先行词:

  It is he who received the letter that announced the death of your uncle.

  是他接到那封信,说你的叔叔去世了。

  c. 溶合法

  1)溶合法是指把原句中的主语和定语从句溶合到一起译成一个独立的句子的翻译方法。它较适用于翻译限制性定语从句,如“There be...”结构形式;

  There are many people who want to see film.

  许多人要看这部电影。

  There is a man downstairs who wants to see you .

  楼下有人要见你。

  1) 在定语复合句中,将英语主句压缩成汉语词组做主语,而把定语从句译成谓语,溶合成一个句子:

  This is a nation that must beg to stay alive.

  这个国家不讨饭就活不下去。

  非限制性定语从句

  a. 前置法

  一些较短而具有描写性的英语非限制性定语从句,可译成带“的”的前置定语:

  The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendour.

  那个整天躲在云层里的太阳,现在又光芒四射地露面了。

  He liked his sister, who was warm and pleasant, but he did not like his brother, who was aloof and arrogant.

  他喜欢热情愉快的妹妹,而不喜欢冷漠高傲的哥哥。

  b. 后置法

  1)译成并列分句

  定语从句后置,重复英语关系词所代表的含义:

  I told the story to John, who told it to his brother.

  我把这件事告诉了约翰,约翰又告诉了他的弟弟。

  定语从句后置,省略关系词所代表的含义:

  After dinner, the four key negotiators resumed their talks,which continued well into the night.

  饭后,四个主要谈判人物继续进行会谈。一直谈到深夜。

  定语从句前置,重复关系词所代表的含义:

  World War ll was, however, more complete that World War l,which was a collision among the imperialist powers over the spoils of markets, resources and territories.

 

       第一次世界大战是帝国主义列强之间争夺市场、资源和领土的冲突是,而第二次世界战却比第一次复杂。

  2)译成独立句

  One was a violent thunderstorm, the worst I had ever seen, which obscured my objective.

  有一次是暴风骤雨,猛烈的程度实为我生平所仅见。这阵暴风雨遮住了我的目标。

  兼有状语特点的定语从句

  有的定语从句,意义上有状语特点,说明原因、结果、目的、让步、假设等关系,可相应地译成状语从句。

  a. 译成表“因”分句

  We know that a cat, whose eyes can take in many rays of light than our eyes, can see clearly at night.

  我们知道由于猫的眼睛比我们人的眼睛吸收更多的光线,所以猫在黑夜也能看很清楚。

  b. 译成表“果”分句

  There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.

  这个方案富于创造性,独出心裁,很有魄力,所以使他们都喜欢。

  c. 译成表“让步”的分句

  He insisted on building another house, which he had no use for.

  他坚持要再造一栋房子,尽管他并无此需要。

  d. 译成表“目的”的分句

  I have not given up my efforts to get a passport that will enable me to visit that country.

  我没有放弃努力来争取一张护照,以便访问那个国家。

  e. 译成表“条件”、“假设”的分句

  Men become desperate for work, any work which will help them to keep alive their families.

  人们极其迫切要求工作,不管什么工作,只要它能维持一家人的生活就行。

  He would be a short -sighted commander who did not look beyond his fortress.

  谁如果不往城堡之外的远处看,那他就是一个目光短浅的指挥员。

标签:译法 从句 定语