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缩短论文长度的 10 个技巧

2015-09-01 16:06:27   来源:丁香园    点击:


       对中国的科研作者来说,要把文章写的简洁有力是一件有难度的事,因为经常找不到适合的词来替代短句。事实上,遵守字数限制来说也不简单,因为总是有很多话想说,但又要维持简短。

写论文需要同时记得期刊的要求然后尽量保持内文简洁,在论文写完后,可以再回头看一遍,找出可以再精简的内容。

        这里有些写作小技巧,相信会对你有所帮助:

 1. 以 there is a previous study on、it has been reported that 或其他类似的句型开头的句子通常都会引用一些文献,使得句子较累赘,可以将这些短语删除,仅留下引用文献。

示例

原文:It has been reported that the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease increases with age (Rogue et al., 2004). (17 字)

修改后: The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease increases with age (Rogue et al., 2004). (12 字)

2. 含有产品名称的句子可以将产品名放进括号里来缩短。

示例

原文:The samples were analyzed on the ABC spectrophotometer (Zhejiang Scientific, Zhejiang, China) to determine the xyz values. (17 字)

修改后:The samples were analyzed  to determine the xyz values (ABC spectrometer; Zhejiang Scientific, Zhejiang, China). (15 字)

3. 将动词名词化能有效使句子变华丽,试着把这类的字找出来。以下例句借着把 diagnosis 替换成 diagnosed 将句子变短了。

示例

原文:A diagnosis of cancer was made on the basis of the findings. (12 字)

修改后: Cancer was diagnosed on the basis of the findings. (9 字)

4. 在结果章节,避免用群组数据加上统计相关性,可以直接把数据放进括号里。

示例

原文:The protein level was 5 mg in Group A, while it was 3 mg in Group B, the difference being statistically significant (p < 0.05). (25 字)

修改后:The difference in the protein level  between groups A and B was significant (5 mg vs. 3 mg, p < 0.05). (21 字)

5. 检查是不是能把一些对读者来说理所当然的基本信息给删除,作者通常多在介绍与讨论部分的开头有所叙述。虽说建构上下文很重要,但给读者这样的信息就有点太过了。例如你在写有关 AIDS 的研究论文,不要用像 AIDS is a life-threatening disease. 这样的句子开头。

6. 找找一些典型的赘词,用比较不那么啰嗦的词来表示。以下提供一些范例:

示例

a number of → several

as a result → therefore

on the other hand → whereas

as a consequence of → owing to

7. 在英文文法里,可以用“省略结构”免去在一个句子里重复出现的动词。

示例

原文:Group A was given cyclosporine, Group B was given FK506, and Group C was given chlorambucil. (16 字)

修改后:Group A was given cyclosporine; Group B,  FK506; and Group C,  chlorambucil. (12 字)

8. 大部分像 MS Office 这样的软件将连字符号串联的字算成一个字,尽量多利用连字符吧。

示例

原文:After rehabilitation, the patients came to rely on themselves. (9 字)

修改后:After rehabilitation, the patients became self-reliant (6 字)

9. 有时候使用主动语态能减少某些句构的字数。

示例

原文:Written  informed consent was given by all patients. (8 字)

修改后:All patients gave written  informed consent . (6 字)

10. 避免用 of 表示所有格。

示例

原文:Patients of Group 1 were followed up for 6 months, and those of Group 2, for 12 months. (18 字)

修改后: Group 1 patients were followed up for 6 months,  and  Group 2 patients, for 12 months. (16 字)

以上几个方法能在不改变内文的情况下通过英文大幅减少文章长度,不过减少字数总归不是件简单的事,需要来回读过几遍把能精简的部分找出来。如果以上方法都不管用,就要多费心神把内容整个看过,看看那个部分能删掉了。

标签:长度 技巧 论文