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长期整理的英文论文写作常用词汇和短语

2017-04-25 14:37:37   来源:丁香园    点击:


这几年看文献和写论文的时候整理了一些写作常用词汇和短语,希望大家也能用得上:

差别 gaps between, differentiate between, discrepancies,no intergroup difference No statistically significant differences in survival were found for MMC or MPMA. Although MMC and MPMA decreased with increasing nuclear grade and TNM stage, this difference failed to achieve statistical significance.
存在,出现 occurred, occurrence ,existed, existence, presence, present
多数,少数 the overwhelming majority of, in the majority of cases ,a marked majority, handful 方法 approaches, avenues, methods, techniques, means, tools
发生率 Incidence, frequency, prevalence In contrast with regions of high incidence, the mutation spectrum did not show a high prevalence of mutations at A:T base pairs.
发现,阐明,报道,证实 verify, confirm, elucidate, identify, define, characterize, clarify, establish, ascertain, explain, observe, illuminate, illustrate,demonstrate, show, indicate, exhibit, presented, reveal, display, manifest,suggest, propose, estimate, prove, imply, disclose,report, describe,facilitate the identification of ,screening ,isolation 改变 change, alteration,
高,增加 high, enhanced, elevated, increased, forced 各种,多种 in multiple types of neoplasia, in various types of apoptosis, in a variety of tumors
关系,相关,参与 closely involved in, associated,
广泛的 in an extensive survey
进行 conducte, perform, carry out,
降,少,缺 decrease, reduction, reduced, diminish, loss, suppression, deficient, low, weak, faint, light, absence, absent, undetectable, lack ,defective, negative,poor,impaired, greatly reduced or completely absent, frequently lost or down-expressed, presented discontinuous and weaker expression, completely negative, was not detectable or dramatically reduced, very faint, was undetectable or barely detectable, no expression was found,
角色,起作用 role, part (limited, potential, early, possible role),serve antiapoptotic functions 可能性 feasibility 密切地 intimately
难理解的,似谜的 enigmatic (x remains enigmatic)
潜在假定的 potential, candidate, putative,
缩写 abbreviations
识别,辨别 discernment
事件 Metastasis to the liver is a common event in clinical oncology. a putative tumor initiating event a (more, extremely, highly, rather, fairly) common initial, a common event in the signal transduction mechanisms of, in the signal transduction processes a common event associated with the mechanisms of a common early event in responses of, after high-dose chemotherapy a common event following gestational exposure to immunotoxicants a common event (that occurs) during apoptosis is…… a common event during oncogenic transformation, in neoplastic transformation that directly or indirectly involves activation of specific tyrosine kinase signaling pathways a common event through which a common event in vivo a rather common event of unknown biological significance a common event resulting from heterogeneous aberrations a common event regardless of histological subtyping, but does not bear any pejorative significance a common event contributing to a rare, common, prerequisite, central, major, transient, initiation, stressful, critical, crucial, secondary, independent, regulatory, early, earlier, late, later, subsequent, circumstantial, untoward, upstream, irreversible, very frequent event
提供,帮助 provide, supply, help (to), contribute to, offer, allow, dedicate, devote, assist in
调节(失调,上调,下调)dis-regulation, dys-regulation, up-regulation, up-expression, over-expression, down-expression, down-regulation, 推测 presume,speculate ,confer, conjecture ,guess, deduce,deduction
(推论) 无所不在地 (表达,如 MEN1)ubiquitously
显著, 优先的 prominent, pronounced, obvious, marked, predominant, strong, striking ,notable, Conspicuously, remarkably,significant, preferential, prevalence, prevalent,
相关性 related, more relevant with ,the relevance of no intergroup difference,irrespective of There was no significant correlation to gender, age, clinical symptoms, histology, T or N status, TNM stage, or tumor location. Neither eNOS nor nNOS expression was associated with vascular density, tumor grade or the TNM status of the tumors. No correlations were found between bFGF and age, menopausal status, TNM or pTNM, histology, SBR grading or steroid receptors. we did not find any correlation between bax expression and any clinicopathologic parameters (sex, age, TNM status, tumor grade, histological type).
相同,同等并列 The coordinated induction of all three FOXO3a targets prompted us to examine the status of FOXO3a itself with a similar pattern to
协同,加强 synergize with
研究 analysis, survey, study, research, investigation, experiments, trial, observations, assessment, inquiry, examinations ,pursue investigation into, analyze, detect, determinate, be focused on, measure, examine, test, assess, evaluate, explore,
一致 which is in accord with the results which corroborated the results which supported the results 优缺点 merits and drawbacks,beneficial and detrimental
异常 aberration, abnormality
重要 crucial, key, important, major, be of critical importance
相反 On the contrary, In contrary, but quite on the contrary in sharp contrast, contrary to what would be expected Contrary to the expectation that Contrary to previous beliefs, Contrary to the hypothesis, Contrary to current popular truisms Contrary to current cognitive theories, However, contrary to expectation,……. Contrary to predictions,… in contrast to previous observations… Contrary to prediction,…… Contrary to most previous claims,
与一起 in combination with, coupled with
由于、鉴于 In light of In view that