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医学论文英文摘要写作技巧-环球语翼

2017-05-25 14:54:15   来源:    点击:


医学论文(medical papers)的定义    

医学论文是对整理和发表医学研究成果的一种特殊文本的总称,就其内容和文体特点而言科分为以下几种:    

1.医学科研论文(scientific papers)    
2.调查报告(survey)    
3.综述(review)    
4.学位论文(theses)   
 5.医学科研论文(scientific papers)    

医学科研论文定义     国际生物学编辑委员会对医学科研论文的定义为:必须是首次公布的应提供足够的资料,使同行们能够进行:①评价所观察到的结果;②评价其推理过程;③重复实验。分为以下两种:①临床研究 (clinical study);②基础研究或实验研究(experimental study)     医学科研论文的格式     医学科研论文必须具备以下几个部分:    
(1)标题(title)    
(2)摘要(abstract)    
(3)引言(introduction)   
(4)材料和方法(materials and methods)    
(5)结果(results)    
(6)讨论(discussion)    
(7)致谢(acknowledgement)    
(8)参考文献(references)   

  一、标题    
(一)要求   
  1.简明扼要(short and concise)     (1)尽量控制在一行,但不是一个句子     (2)不超过 25 个单词或 120-140 个字母     (3)除 DNA、RNA、CT 等不用缩写    

2.信息丰富 (informative)    

3.便于索引(indexing)    

4.较长标题可采用副标题    

(二)标题写作中常用词组和表达方式    

1.用…(方法/手段)对…进行研究/分析/观察/评价:     Study(analysis/observation/evaluation/assessment) of (on) … (by) using 方法 /with 工具)    

2.A 对 B 的作用     Effort of A on B     Protective effect of omeprazole on endothelin-induced gastric mucosal injury    3.A 与 B 的关系     Correlation (relation/relationship) between A and B     Correlation of A with B and C     常用修饰词:positively/negatively/significantly/insignificantly    
4.用…治疗…     Use of …in the treatment of …( 病)in …(生物)     Use of omeprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the elderly    
5.A 是 B     A as B    

二、著录部分书写    
(一)姓名     标准式:WANG Luowei,HUANG Yingfeng,GUO Xiao’an    
(二) 地址     800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433, P.R.China    
(三)资助     A project funded by the National “863” Program    
三、摘要的分类与格式     摘要是作者要给读者的精华,分两大类:   
 (一)指示性摘要    
(二)资料性摘要     1.非结构式摘要     缺点:段落不明,给编辑、审稿、阅读和计算机处理带来诸多不便     2.全结构式摘要(8 要素摘要)     (1)目的     (2)设计     (3)地点     (4)对象     (5)处理     (6)主要测定项目     (7)结果     (8)结论     全结构式摘要的优点     (1)观点更明确     (2)信息量更大     (3)差错更少     (4)符合计算机数据库建立和使用的要求     全结构式摘要的缺点:烦琐、重复、篇幅过长     3.半结构式摘要(四要素摘要)     (1)目的(objective/purpose/aim)     (2)方法(methods)     (3)结果(results)     (4)结论(conclusion)   

  目的:是作者想要介绍的关键问题    

一、目的格式     (一)单表目的     (二)背景+目的    
二、目的常用时态     (一)背景:现在时(一般现在时、完成时和进行时)    
(二)目的:一般现在时/现在完成时,或一般过去时     举例:     (1)To evaluate the effects on 24-hour intragastric pH levels of infusions with omeprazole and H2 receptor antagonists in bleeding duodenal ulcer patients.     (2)The role of omeprazole in triple therapy and the impact of Helicobacter pylori resistance on treatment outcome are not established. This study investigated the role of omeprazole and influence of primary H. pylori resistance on eradication and development of secondary resistance.    

三、介绍目的常用句型     主要用动词不定式 to 表达     1.直接用 to do 短语表达     举例:To determine if use of omeprazole protects against the gastric mucosal injury     2.The purpose/aim/objective/goal(of present study is)was to     举例:The aim of this study was to determine the protective function of omeprazole on gastric mucosal injury     3.The present study is /was designed/devised/intended to     举例:The present study was designed to establish whether there might be a genetic predisposition to an altered pattern of anti-inflammatory cytokine produced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome     4.This study was performed/conducted/carried out/undertaken to     举例:An experimental study was conducted using a canine mode to elucidate …     5.We aimed/sought to/attempted to     举例:We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries occupations.    

四、介绍目的常用动词    
1.研究:study, investigate, examine, observe, explore     举例:Our objective in this report is to examine the clinical feature, pathology and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer.   
  2.评价:evaluate, validate     举例:To evaluate sonography as a tool for initial diagnosis in emergency room patients with abdominal trauma.   
  3.确定:determine, decide, confirm, support, define, characterize     
4.证实:prove, demonstrate, document, test, support, testify, verify     
5.阐明、搞清:explain, elucidate, clarify, illustrate, delineate, find out, contribute to the knowledge of    
6.介绍:describe, present, report   
  7.建立:establish, develop, set out    
8.寻找:search for, look for, seek, find    
9.识别、区分:identify, differentiate, discriminate    
10.优选:optimize    
11.比较:compare    
12.回顾:review    
13.相关:correlate A with B     方法部分     (1)研究设计     (2)研究对象的特性     (3)干预或处理方法     (4)测定或观察方法    
一、 研究对象的选择、来源及标准     1.纳入研究:were entered into/enrolled in/selected (randomly)     举例:A total of 169 patients were included in the study, 83 of whom received……     2.排除或退出研究:were excluded from participation,withdrew from the study due to/because to     举例:……Patients with significant aortic valvular diseases were excluded.    
二、 研究对象的分组     1.……were divided into/classified/grouped into     2.……were divided randomly/randomized into     3.…… were divided equally into     举例:Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1…… Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole, ……    
三、 年龄     1.某一年龄     举例:A 50-year-old patient. Patients (age 26±3 years).     2.在某年龄范围内及平均年龄     举例:Patients range in age from …to…, with a mean of (50 years).     3.在某一年龄以上或以下     举例:Patients more than 50 years. Patients under/less than 50 years.    
四、 性别、时间     1.性别     twelve patients (7 male and 5 female)     The male-to-female ratio was 1:4     2.时间     Body weight was measured weekly, and liver biopsy was obtained at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. ……     
五、 诊断与治疗     1.诊断     be diagnosed as having …     be diagnosed as …by …/with …®be suspected as …     2.治疗     be treated with…(alone or in combination with …)     be treated on outpatient/inpatient basis     举例:     (1)Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole,…     (2)50 patients with active bleeding duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to receive one of the four treatment regimens. …    
结果部分    
1.是文章结论的根据    
2.应记录真实的科研数据    
3.除指示性说明外,一般用过去时表示    
一、 常用句型    
1.结果表明:The results showed / demonstrated / revealed / documented / indicated/suggested…that…®It was found that…     举例:The results showed that high thigh cuff Doppler technique was 79 percent sensitive, 56 percent specific and 63 percent accurate.    
2.与…有关:A was related / correlated /associated with B. There was a relationship /correlation between A and B. There was a relation of A with B and C     举例:Insulin sensitivity index was negatively with blood velocity (r=0.530, P<0.05), body mass index (r=o.563, P<0.01) and baseline insulinemia (r=0.489, P<0.05)    
3.增加或减少     (1)表示数值增加的动词:increase, rise, elevate     (2)表示数值增加的名词:increase, increment, elevation     (3)表示数值减少的动词:decrease, reduce, fall, drop, decline, lower     (4)表示数值减少的名词:decrease, decrement, reduction, fall, drop, decline, lowering     (5)从…增加到…,平均增加…:increase from …to …, with a mean/average (increase) of …     (6)从…增加到…,总的增加…:increase from …to …, with an overall increase of …     (7)增加了 10%:increase by (10%)    
4.倍数比较     (1)增加或减少 3 倍:increase by 3 fold (times). a 3-fold increase     (2)A 是 B 的 3 倍:A is 3 fold (times) as…as B. A is 3 fold (times) B    
5.结果的统计学意义     (1)明显不同(significant difference)     (2)很明显不同(very/highly significant difference)     (3)区别不明显( insignificant difference)     (4)无区别( nonsignificant difference/no difference)    
6.统计学意义常用句型     (1)There was/is significant difference in…between A and B     (2)The difference in …between A and B was/is significant     (3)A was/is significant difference from B in …     (4)No significant difference was found / observed / noted in …between A and B     “in” 表示区分的性质或内容     举例:     ①There were no significant difference between treatment groups in symptoms and lung function (P>0.05).     ②Significant difference were not noted in the level of HDL cholesterol, and LDL peak particle diameter before and after treatment.      

结论部分:是作者发表观点和见解,给读者的精髓部分   
1.归纳性说明研究结果或发现    
2.结论性说明结果的可能原因、机理或意义    
3.前瞻性说明未解决的问题     
一、结论部分时态    
1.过去时     (1)涉及本研究的内容     (2)涉及他人研究过程的内容     (3)作者认为只适用于本研究环境和条件的结论    
2.现在时     (1)指示性说明     (2)普遍接受的思想、理论或结论     (3)作者认为本研究结论具有普遍意义     (4)前瞻性说明      举例:Our findings indicate that hepatitis C is a progressive disease [指示性说明 - 现在时],but only a few died during the average 20.4 years after the initiation of injection drug use [本试验过程中发生的事 - 过去时]. Antiviral treatment to eradicate the virus and halt the progression of diseases is indicated in this group of patients [ 作者认为具有普遍意义的结论 - 现在时].    
二、 结论部分常用句型     1.结果提示…:These results suggest that…     举例:These data confirm the presence of at least two major HCV genotypes in Nigeria.        
2.结果支持或反对某种观点:These results support the idea that…;These results fail to support the idea that…     举例:These results do not support the idea that treatment to lower cholesterol concentration cause mood disturbance.    
 3.表示观点的确定或不确定性:There is no evidence that…;It is likely/unlikely that …     举例:There is no evidence that NIDDM produce any change in bone metabolism or mass.    
4.具有…意义:Be of great (some/little/no) clinical significance in…to …     举例:The detection of p53 gene is of great clinical significance in tumor diagnosis.   
5.前瞻性说明:…remain to be further studied;It is remains to be proved that …       举例:However, the relation of insulin resistance to hypertension remains to be further studied.    
6.插入语:This is the first case of pancreas divisum.      举例:This is the first case, to our knowledge, of pancreas divisum.