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Estimation of joint trace length probability distribution function in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks（火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩节理迹长概率分布函数估计）
（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2353-2361），Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study（煤矿软岩巷道稳定性实例研究）、
（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2225-2238），Mine Overburden Dump Failure: A Case Study[矿山覆排土（石）场破坏实例研究]（Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 297-309），Assessments of Strength Anisotropy and Deformation Behavior of Banded Amphibolite Rocks（带状闪石强度各向异性及变形特征估算）
（Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 429-438），In-situ Rock Spalling Strength near Excavation Boundaries（开挖边界附近现场岩石剥落强度）
（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, March 2014, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 659-675），Relationship Between Pre-failure and Post-failure Mechanical Properties of Rock Material of Different Origin（不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性关系）
（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, February 2014），Coal waste management practices in the USA: an overview[美国煤渣（煤矸石等）管理实践综述]（International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, June 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 163-176），
Overview and modeling of mechanical and thermomechanical impact of underground coal gasification exploitation（地下矿井煤气化开发的力学与热力学影响之回顾与模拟）（Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, March 2014），
Poromechanics of adsorption-induced swelling in microporous materials: a new poromechanical model taking into account strain effects on adsorption（微孔材料吸附引起的膨胀孔隙介质力学：考虑应变对吸附影响的新孔隙介质力学模型）（Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, May 2014）
★angle e.g. Under uniaxial test, the banded amphibolite has a U-shaped anisotropy with maximum strength at β = 90° and minimum strength is obtained when β = 30°.
★back analysis e.g. These findings were supported by back-analysis of case histories where failure had been carefully documented, using either Kirsch’s solution (with approximated circular tunnel geometry and hence σ max = 3σ 1 −σ 3) or simplified numerical stress modeling (with a smooth tunnel wall boundary) to approximate the maximum tangential stress σ max at the excavation boundary; This paper back analyse material properties and investigates the probable mechanism of this OB failure.
★banded amphibolite 带状闪石
★banded amphibolite rocks e.g. However, far too little attention has been paid to banded amphibolite rocks. This study aim to evaluate strength and deformation anisotropy behavior of banded amphibolite rocks.
★behavior of structures e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.
★coal waste disposal facility e.g. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining.
★coal waste impoundments e.g. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.
★compression and shear waves
★continuum numerical methods e.g. Well established tools including limiting equilibrium and continuum numerical methods have been used to understand and identify the failure kinematics of this dump.
★deformation e.g. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios.
★drop modulus e.g. It was found that the drop modulus D pf increases with rock strength σ ci, following a power (幂) function with an approximate power of two.
★dynamic mechanical properties e.g. The results obtained have shown that the dynamic mechanical properties of amphibolite(闪石) rocks have different values concerning banding plane.
★earth and rock embankments and dams e.g. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures.
★elastic deformation test e.g. The results of elastic deformation test show that there is no clear dependence on microstructures characteristics of subtype-amphibolite rocks that controlling modulus “shape-anisotropy”.
★excavation boundaries e.g. In this article, it is suggested that these approaches ignore one of the most important factors, the irregularity of the excavation boundary, when interpreting the in-situ rock strength.
★exponential 指数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic (对数) and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★exponential trend e.g. With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio.
★failure of an out-of-pit OB dump e.g. Recently, the failure of an out-of-pit OB dump at an Indian Colliery was reported.
★failure of open pit dumps e.g. Various literatures have reported the failure of open pit dumps and the consequences in loss of life, production and impact on neighboring amenities .
★geometry properties e.g. Joint trace length is one of the most difficult properties to measure accurately, but it may be possible to record other geometrical properties of exposed joints accurately.
★geometry properties of joints
★goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests e.g. Consequently, goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests were applied on these data.
★in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining e.g. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining.
★intact rock parameters e.g. The aim is to relate commonly used intact rock parameters of pre-failure (tangent modulus E i and secant modulus E s) and peak strength (σ ci) states to parameters of the post-failure state under unconfined compression.
★joint length e.g. Since joint length has a range of values, it is useful to have an understanding of the distribution of these values in order to predict how the extreme values may be compared to the values obtained from a small sample.
★joint systems e.g. For this purpose, three datasets of joint systems from nine exposures of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are studied.
★joint trace length 节理迹长
★joint trace length distribution e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.
★joint trace length probability distribution function 节理迹长概率分布函数
★jointed rock masses e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.
★logarithmic 对数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★logarithmic and exponential functional forms e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★longwall method e.g. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m.
★modulus e.g. Thus, this study recommended that further research be undertaken regarding the role of modulus “shape-anisotropy” within the same lithotype.
★overburden e.g. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production.
★overburden (OB) dump e.g. The improper management of the overburden (OB) dump can result in stability issues which may affect safety and production of the mine.
★peak e.g. In unconfined conditions, data related to the post-peak region of the intact rock parameters are not common as pre-peak and peak state parameters of stress–strain behavior; For the estimation of post-failure parameters in terms of the pre-peak and peak states, the functional relations were assessed.
★post-failure e.g. For problems involving rock in the failed state around structures, proper choice of plastic constitutive laws and post-failure parameters is important for the modeling of the failed state; Post-failure parameters are the drop modulus (D pf), representing the slope of the falling portion in brittle state, residual strength (σ cr), and dilatancy angle (ψ°).
★pre-failure and post-failure e.g. The results from the pre-failure and peak state testing parts were processed and compared to the post-failure stress–strain parameters.
★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties 破坏前与破坏后力学特性
★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties of rock material of different origin 不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性
★probability distribution function 概率分布函数 e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal (对数正态) distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.
★range e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47. It seems that the high range value of anisotropic index is mainly due to slight undulation of foliation planes, that being not perfectly straight.
★ratio e.g. The ratio of σ max /UCS is related to the observed depth of failure and failure initiation occurs when σ max is roughly equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS; With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio；Due to their lack of long-range crystal ordering, allophane are difficult to study and their structure is still not completely understood, particularly with respect to the effect of widely varying Al:Si ratios in the same fundamental structural unit; Thus, the present results suggest a model of allophane structure in which one fundamental structural type, containing a complete octahedral sheet, can accommodate a range of Al:Si rations.
★residual friction angle e.g. It has been found that the residual friction angle of the material comprising the dump structural unit dominates stability.
★residual strength e.g. Mobilization of residual strength can occur by operational induced strains and/or the presence of water.
★resultant failure e.g. The resultant failure is manifest as a bilinear wedge movement of two ridged blocks defined by linear rupture planes.
★roadway deformation e.g. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40–50 % less than the previous sections.
★roadway failure mechanism
★rock failure e.g. It is demonstrated using the Mine-by tunnel notch breakout example that when the realistic “as-built” excavation boundary condition is honored, the “actual” in-situ rock strength, given by 0.8 UCS, can be applied to simulate progressive brittle rock failure process satisfactorily.
★rock spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring.
★rock strength e.g. The interpreted, reduced in-situ rock strength of 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS without considering geometry irregularity is therefore only an “apparent” rock strength.
★rocks e.g. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks (火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩)
★shear strength of the foundation e.g. The shear strength of the foundation was fully mobilized and provided a slip surface for the overlying dump material.
★soil and rock mechanics e.g. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences.
★spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring; It is demonstrated that the “actual” in-situ spalling strength of massive rocks is not equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, but can be as high as 0.8 ± 0.05 UCS when surface irregularities are considered.
★spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.
★strength anisotropic index 强度各向异性指数 e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47.
★strength anisotropy 强度各向异性 e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.
★strength of massive rocks e.g. It is widely accepted that the in-situ strength of massive rocks is approximately 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength obtained from unconfined tests using diamond drilling core samples with a diameter around 50 mm.
★stress–strain curve e.g. Under compression, gathering data related to the post-failure part of the stress–strain curve requires stiff servo-controlled testing systems; Complete stress–strain curves were generated for various intact rock of different origin.
★stripped spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.
★support vector machine
★support vector machine (SVM) model e.g. support vector machine (SVM) model is used to predict the joint trace length; SVM is a novel machine learning method, which is a powerful tool used to solve the problem characterized by small sample and non-linearity with a good generalization performance.
★surrounding rock strata and coal seams e.g. Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high.
★trace length e.g. Among geometry properties of joints, trace length has a vital importance, because it affects rock mass strength and controls the stability of the rock structures in jointed rock masses.
★transversely isotropic rocks e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.
★ultrasonic pulse test
★uniaxial compressive strength
★value e.g. Therefore low CTI values result from higher slope values and small drainage areas, whereas high CTI values result from lower slope values and larger drainage areas. Note that this value does not consider wetness contributed from the climate of an area, but is purely dependent on the topographic influence on wetness.
★Young modulus 杨氏模量 e.g. However, in this study, Young modulus values of amphibolite rocks with β follow both types of shape-anisotropy, “U-shape” and “decreased order-shaped”.